Executive Functioning

Student Profile
7th-9th Grade
Primary Learning Difficulty: Executive Functioning

Sample Instructional Goals

Academic and Social Problem Solving

  • Develop time management and planning skills
  • Maintain a system of organization for his binder, planner and materials
  • Improve self-advocacy skills
  • Build self-awareness and self-confidence
  • Self-monitor content understanding and recognize need for clarification
  • Develop understanding of learning style
  • Increase self-monitoring
  • Improve organization and consistency of effortful schoolwork
  • Enhance self-regulation skills
  • Increase social problem-solving skills

Reading Comprehension

  • Identify pertinent information within text
  • Develop inferential reasoning skills
  • Increase ability to draw conclusions and make predictions
  • Understand character development
  • Accurately identify main idea and supporting detail in narrative and exposition
  • Understand theme within text and across text
  • Increase critical thinking

Writing

  • Increase written language output
  • Maintain and develop written organization
  • Increase working vocabulary
  • Write effective five-paragraph essays regularly
  • Write an effective research paper and use proper citations
  • Increase independence in all areas of written language production
  • Address remaining grammar and usage deficits

Organization and Study Skills

  • Develop annotating and highlighting/underlining skills
  • Construct a set of notes based on reading, listening or viewing
  • Reinforce understanding and memory of information
  • Plan effectively
  • Prioritize information and tasks successfully
  • Sort and organize notes and papers
  • Use appropriate study modes and methods
  • Complete homework in a timely manner and to instructor’s expectations
  • Arrive at class prepared and ready to work

Sample Methods and Strategies to Achieve Objectives

Academic and Social Problem Solving

  • Consistent classroom management
  • Provide immediate feedback about behavior
  • Follow a predictable schedule [visual schedule, rules, consequences]
  • Write daily lesson objectives on the board [check off as completed]
  • Use written directions to keep students focused
  • Discuss expectations for classwork and homework and require expectations are met
  • Individualize handouts
  • Model material and written organization
  • Have individual students repeat or rephrase directions back to you
  • Have students explain their reasoning and describe thinking process in writing
  • Set aside time at the end of each period for students to organize themselves
  • Regularly evaluate student performance and re-model to remediate
  • Give direct instruction on understanding the link between effort and outcome
  • Provide a daily review of all topics
  • Breakdown all assignments into manageable portions and scaffold realistic time management plans
  • Communicate expectations to students with frequent teacher feedback
  • Model the type of assignment the instructor desires

Reading Comprehension

  • Highlight text and make margin notes
  • Use the 5 Ws with increasing independence
  • Use reciprocal teaching to elicit predictions and conclusions, clarify vocabulary, and make connections explicit
  • Use graphic organizers, outlines and charts to keep track of character development, plot and exposition of theme
  • Frequent review using oral and visual cues
  • Gradually increase amount of independent reading both in class and at home
  • Use class discussions to help connect material under study to wider frames of reference
  • Develop vocabulary using both words from the text and a suitable word list

Writing

  • Develop pre-writing techniques, like brainstorming
  • Explore a variety of organizing strategies, including semantic webs, concept maps, and linear outlines
  • Revisit paragraph structure (topic sentence, supporting details, concluding sentence)
  • Use multiple drafts to increase and refine written expression
  • Develop a personalized editing guide, which will include 3 or 4 targeted grammatical issues to be addressed in each assignment
  • Weekly vocabulary assignments, which may profitably be associated with the text under discussion or the topic assigned for an essay
  • Conference with students frequently on written work as it develops
  • Provide models and demonstrations of tasks

Organization and Study Skills

  • Teach, demonstrate, assign and assess highlighting and margin notes
  • Use Cornell method of organizing data (or some other method agreed upon by the teaching team)
  • Afford opportunities to take notes from lecture or media presentation and model what they might look like
  • Provide in-class time to allow students to plan and prioritize
  • Weekly organization of notebook: all written work must have complete student name and date
  • Study methods that make use of visual, aural, and tactile modalities can be demonstrated
  • Homework needs to be assigned regularly, must be meaningful and doable
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Winston Preparatory School is a leading school for students with learning disabilities, including dyslexia, executive functioning difficulties (ADHD) and non-verbal learning disorders (NVLD).

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