Language Processing

Student Profile
10th-12th Grade
Primary Learning Difficulty: Language Processing
Secondary Learning Difficulty: Executive Functioning

Sample Instructional Goals

Decoding and Encoding

  • Study and apply syllabication rules
  • Develop understanding of higher-level decoding rules and strategies
  • Improve encoding and spelling in context
  • Increase rate and accuracy of word identification
  • Enhance ability to transfer decoding knowledge to all reading


  • Develop inferential reasoning skills
  • Study expository text structures
  • Improve active reading skills such as text-coding and margin notes
  • Develop reading comprehension skills using reciprocal teaching strategies
  • Increase vocabulary

Written Expression

  • Increase confidence in writing
  • Continue to vary sentence structure and utilize transition words
  • Improve paragraph and essay formation, organization and expansion
  • Study and utilize pre-writing strategies, and develop and apply editing and revising strategies
  • Effectively write concise and comprehensive thesis statements
  • Write research papers and use proper citations
  • Strengthen written mechanics (grammar, punctuation, and word choice)

Organization and Study Skills

  • Organize short and long term assignments in a daily planner
  • Prioritize information and tasks
  • Sort and organize notes and papers
  • Complete homework in a timely manner and to instructor’s expectations
  • Arrive at class prepared and ready to work
  • Develop annotating and highlighting/underlining skills
  • Construct a set of notes based on reading, listening or viewing

Sample Methods and Strategies to Achieve Objectives


  • Review topics covered – both oral and written – each day
  • Allow sufficient time for students to process all auditory/verbal information
  • Use multimodal presentation whenever possible
  • Give direct instruction on the link between effort and outcome
  • Communicate expectations to students with frequent teacher feedback
  • Model assignments for students
  • Assign meaningful homework regularly

Decoding and Encoding

  • Participate in direct, multisensory, sequential and cumulative decoding and encoding instruction
  • Practice reading words in phrases to improve fluency
  • As often as possible decoding practice should be performed in class and in independent reading assignments


  • Structure auditory presentation
  • Provide structured classroom reading (read discrete amounts, stop, discuss, daily review)
  • Read aloud and break down complex language found in text and discuss in class
  • Use graphic organizers and charts to track character development and plot events
  • Review 5 Ws
  • Isolate and discuss inferential details
  • Give direct instruction on figurative language
  • Allow frequent independent reading by gradually increasing amount and difficulty, and assessing student comprehension through reciprocal reading, class discussion, and journal writing
  • Lead class discussions to make connections between textual details and information from other academic disciplines
  • Isolate, review, and use new vocabulary from text


  • Model the entire writing process
  • Explain, demonstrate and practice pre-writing techniques like brainstorming, outlining, and editing
  • Explore a variety of organizing strategies, including semantic webs, concept maps, and linear outlines
  • Review and reinforce paragraph structure (topic sentence, supporting details, concluding sentence)
  • Use multiple drafts to increase and refine written expression
  • Develop a personalized editing guide, which will include 3 or 4 targeted grammatical issues to be addressed in each assignment
  • Practice using new vocabulary by assigning sentence writing that includes subordinating conjunctions and transitional words

Organization and Study Skills

  • Breakdown all assignments into manageable portions and scaffold realistic time management plans
  • Monitor student organization of notes and papers
  • Provide in-class time to allow students to plan and prioritize
  • Demonstrate study methods that make use of visual, auditory, and tactile modalities
  • Teach, demonstrate, assign and assess highlighting and margin notes
  • Use Cornell method of organizing data (or some other method agreed upon by the teaching team)
  • Have students take notes from lecture or multi-media presentation
Winston Preparatory School is a leading school for students with learning disabilities, including dyslexia, executive functioning difficulties (ADHD) and non-verbal learning disorders (NVLD).

WPS does not discriminate against applicants and students on the basis of race, color, national or ethnic origin. Read More