Language Processing

Student Profile
10th-12th Grade
Primary Learning Difficulty: Language Processing
Secondary Learning Difficulty: Executive Functioning

Sample Instructional Goals

Decoding and Encoding

  • Study and apply syllabication rules
  • Develop understanding of higher-level decoding rules and strategies
  • Improve encoding and spelling in context
  • Increase rate and accuracy of word identification
  • Enhance ability to transfer decoding knowledge to all reading


  • Develop inferential reasoning skills
  • Study expository text structures
  • Improve active reading skills such as text-coding and margin notes
  • Develop reading comprehension skills using reciprocal teaching strategies
  • Increase vocabulary

Written Expression

  • Increase confidence in writing
  • Continue to vary sentence structure and utilize transition words
  • Improve paragraph and essay formation, organization and expansion
  • Study and utilize pre-writing strategies, and develop and apply editing and revising strategies
  • Effectively write concise and comprehensive thesis statements
  • Write research papers and use proper citations
  • Strengthen written mechanics (grammar, punctuation, and word choice)

Organization and Study Skills

  • Organize short and long term assignments in a daily planner
  • Prioritize information and tasks
  • Sort and organize notes and papers
  • Complete homework in a timely manner and to instructor’s expectations
  • Arrive at class prepared and ready to work
  • Develop annotating and highlighting/underlining skills
  • Construct a set of notes based on reading, listening or viewing

Sample Methods and Strategies to Achieve Objectives


  • Review topics covered – both oral and written – each day
  • Allow sufficient time for students to process all auditory/verbal information
  • Use multimodal presentation whenever possible
  • Give direct instruction on the link between effort and outcome
  • Communicate expectations to students with frequent teacher feedback
  • Model assignments for students
  • Assign meaningful homework regularly

Decoding and Encoding

  • Participate in direct, multisensory, sequential and cumulative decoding and encoding instruction
  • Practice reading words in phrases to improve fluency
  • As often as possible decoding practice should be performed in class and in independent reading assignments


  • Structure auditory presentation
  • Provide structured classroom reading (read discrete amounts, stop, discuss, daily review)
  • Read aloud and break down complex language found in text and discuss in class
  • Use graphic organizers and charts to track character development and plot events
  • Review 5 Ws
  • Isolate and discuss inferential details
  • Give direct instruction on figurative language
  • Allow frequent independent reading by gradually increasing amount and difficulty, and assessing student comprehension through reciprocal reading, class discussion, and journal writing
  • Lead class discussions to make connections between textual details and information from other academic disciplines
  • Isolate, review, and use new vocabulary from text


  • Model the entire writing process
  • Explain, demonstrate and practice pre-writing techniques like brainstorming, outlining, and editing
  • Explore a variety of organizing strategies, including semantic webs, concept maps, and linear outlines
  • Review and reinforce paragraph structure (topic sentence, supporting details, concluding sentence)
  • Use multiple drafts to increase and refine written expression
  • Develop a personalized editing guide, which will include 3 or 4 targeted grammatical issues to be addressed in each assignment
  • Practice using new vocabulary by assigning sentence writing that includes subordinating conjunctions and transitional words

Organization and Study Skills

  • Breakdown all assignments into manageable portions and scaffold realistic time management plans
  • Monitor student organization of notes and papers
  • Provide in-class time to allow students to plan and prioritize
  • Demonstrate study methods that make use of visual, auditory, and tactile modalities
  • Teach, demonstrate, assign and assess highlighting and margin notes
  • Use Cornell method of organizing data (or some other method agreed upon by the teaching team)
  • Have students take notes from lecture or multi-media presentation
Winston Preparatory School is a leading school for students with learning disabilities, including dyslexia, executive functioning difficulties (ADHD), and non-verbal learning disorders (NVLD).

WPS does not discriminate against applicants and students on the basis of race, color, national or ethnic origin. The Winston Preparatory School provides programs and services and equal opportunity in the administration of its educational and admissions policies, financial aid programs, employment, and the selection of its governing board without regard to gender, race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, disability status, or any status recognized by federal, state and local civil rights and non-discrimination laws.