Executive Functioning

Student Profile
7th-9th Grade
Primary Learning Difficulty: Executive Functioning

Sample Instructional Goals

Academic and Social Problem Solving

  • Develop time management and planning skills
  • Maintain a system of organization for his binder, planner and materials
  • Improve self-advocacy skills
  • Build self-awareness and self-confidence
  • Self-monitor content understanding and recognize need for clarification
  • Develop understanding of learning style
  • Increase self-monitoring
  • Improve organization and consistency of effortful schoolwork
  • Enhance self-regulation skills
  • Increase social problem-solving skills

Reading Comprehension

  • Identify pertinent information within text
  • Develop inferential reasoning skills
  • Increase ability to draw conclusions and make predictions
  • Understand character development
  • Accurately identify main idea and supporting detail in narrative and exposition
  • Understand theme within text and across text
  • Increase critical thinking

Writing

  • Increase written language output
  • Maintain and develop written organization
  • Increase working vocabulary
  • Write effective five-paragraph essays regularly
  • Write an effective research paper and use proper citations
  • Increase independence in all areas of written language production
  • Address remaining grammar and usage deficits

Organization and Study Skills

  • Develop annotating and highlighting/underlining skills
  • Construct a set of notes based on reading, listening or viewing
  • Reinforce understanding and memory of information
  • Plan effectively
  • Prioritize information and tasks successfully
  • Sort and organize notes and papers
  • Use appropriate study modes and methods
  • Complete homework in a timely manner and to instructor’s expectations
  • Arrive at class prepared and ready to work

Sample Methods and Strategies to Achieve Objectives

Academic and Social Problem Solving

  • Consistent classroom management
  • Provide immediate feedback about behavior
  • Follow a predictable schedule [visual schedule, rules, consequences]
  • Write daily lesson objectives on the board [check off as completed]
  • Use written directions to keep students focused
  • Discuss expectations for classwork and homework and require expectations are met
  • Individualize handouts
  • Model material and written organization
  • Have individual students repeat or rephrase directions back to you
  • Have students explain their reasoning and describe thinking process in writing
  • Set aside time at the end of each period for students to organize themselves
  • Regularly evaluate student performance and re-model to remediate
  • Give direct instruction on understanding the link between effort and outcome
  • Provide a daily review of all topics
  • Breakdown all assignments into manageable portions and scaffold realistic time management plans
  • Communicate expectations to students with frequent teacher feedback
  • Model the type of assignment the instructor desires

Reading Comprehension

  • Highlight text and make margin notes
  • Use the 5 Ws with increasing independence
  • Use reciprocal teaching to elicit predictions and conclusions, clarify vocabulary, and make connections explicit
  • Use graphic organizers, outlines and charts to keep track of character development, plot and exposition of theme
  • Frequent review using oral and visual cues
  • Gradually increase amount of independent reading both in class and at home
  • Use class discussions to help connect material under study to wider frames of reference
  • Develop vocabulary using both words from the text and a suitable word list

Writing

  • Develop pre-writing techniques, like brainstorming
  • Explore a variety of organizing strategies, including semantic webs, concept maps, and linear outlines
  • Revisit paragraph structure (topic sentence, supporting details, concluding sentence)
  • Use multiple drafts to increase and refine written expression
  • Develop a personalized editing guide, which will include 3 or 4 targeted grammatical issues to be addressed in each assignment
  • Weekly vocabulary assignments, which may profitably be associated with the text under discussion or the topic assigned for an essay
  • Conference with students frequently on written work as it develops
  • Provide models and demonstrations of tasks

Organization and Study Skills

  • Teach, demonstrate, assign and assess highlighting and margin notes
  • Use Cornell method of organizing data (or some other method agreed upon by the teaching team)
  • Afford opportunities to take notes from lecture or media presentation and model what they might look like
  • Provide in-class time to allow students to plan and prioritize
  • Weekly organization of notebook: all written work must have complete student name and date
  • Study methods that make use of visual, aural, and tactile modalities can be demonstrated
  • Homework needs to be assigned regularly, must be meaningful and doable
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Winston Preparatory School is a leading school for students with learning disabilities, including dyslexia, executive functioning difficulties (ADHD), and non-verbal learning disorders (NVLD).

WPS does not discriminate against applicants and students on the basis of race, color, national or ethnic origin. The Winston Preparatory School provides programs and services and equal opportunity in the administration of its educational and admissions policies, financial aid programs, employment, and the selection of its governing board without regard to gender, race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, disability status, or any status recognized by federal, state and local civil rights and non-discrimination laws.