Winston Prep School

Language Processing in NY

Student Profile
10th-12th Grade
Primary Learning Difficulty: Language Processing
Secondary Learning Difficulty: Executive Functioning

Sample Instructional Goals

Decoding and Encoding

• Study and apply syllabication rules
• Develop understanding of higher-level decoding rules and strategies
• Improve encoding and spelling in context
• Increase rate and accuracy of word identification
• Enhance ability to transfer decoding knowledge to all reading


• Develop inferential reasoning skills
• Study expository text structures
• Improve active reading skills such as text-coding and margin notes
• Develop reading comprehension skills using reciprocal teaching strategies
• Increase vocabulary

Written Expression

• Increase confidence in writing
• Continue to vary sentence structure and utilize transition words
• Improve paragraph and essay formation, organization and expansion
• Study and utilize pre-writing strategies, and develop and apply editing and revising strategies
• Effectively write concise and comprehensive thesis statements
• Write research papers and use proper citations
• Strengthen written mechanics (grammar, punctuation, and word choice)

Organization and Study Skills

• Organize short and long term assignments in a daily planner
• Prioritize information and tasks
• Sort and organize notes and papers
• Complete homework in a timely manner and to instructor’s expectations
• Arrive at class prepared and ready to work
• Develop annotating and highlighting/underlining skills
• Construct a set of notes based on reading, listening or viewing

Sample Methods and Strategies to Achieve Objectives


• Review topics covered – both oral and written – each day
• Allow sufficient time for students to process all auditory/verbal information
• Use multimodal presentation whenever possible
• Give direct instruction on the link between effort and outcome
• Communicate expectations to students with frequent teacher feedback
• Model assignments for students
• Assign meaningful homework regularly

Decoding and Encoding

• Participate in direct, multisensory, sequential and cumulative decoding and encoding instruction
• Practice reading words in phrases to improve fluency
• As often as possible decoding practice should be performed in class and in independent reading assignments


• Structure auditory presentation
• Provide structured classroom reading (read discrete amounts, stop, discuss, daily review)
• Read aloud and break down complex language found in text and discuss in class
• Use graphic organizers and charts to track character development and plot events
• Review 5 Ws
• Isolate and discuss inferential details
• Give direct instruction on figurative language
• Allow frequent independent reading by gradually increasing amount and difficulty, and assessing student comprehension through reciprocal reading, class discussion, and journal writing
• Lead class discussions to make connections between textual details and information from other academic disciplines
• Isolate, review, and use new vocabulary from text


• Model the entire writing process
• Explain, demonstrate and practice pre-writing techniques like brainstorming, outlining, and editing
• Explore a variety of organizing strategies, including semantic webs, concept maps, and linear outlines
• Review and reinforce paragraph structure (topic sentence, supporting details, concluding sentence)
• Use multiple drafts to increase and refine written expression
• Develop a personalized editing guide, which will include 3 or 4 targeted grammatical issues to be addressed in each assignment
• Practice using new vocabulary by assigning sentence writing that includes subordinating conjunctions and transitional words

Organization and Study Skills

• Breakdown all assignments into manageable portions and scaffold realistic time management plans
• Monitor student organization of notes and papers
• Provide in-class time to allow students to plan and prioritize
• Demonstrate study methods that make use of visual, auditory, and tactile modalities
• Teach, demonstrate, assign and assess highlighting and margin notes
• Use Cornell method of organizing data (or some other method agreed upon by the teaching team)
• Have students take notes from lecture or multi-media presentation