Executive Functioning

Student Profile
7th-9th Grade
Primary Learning Difficulty: Executive Functioning

Sample Instructional Goals

Academic and Social Problem Solving

• Develop time management and planning skills
• Maintain a system of organization for his binder, planner and materials
• Improve self-advocacy skills
• Build self-awareness and self-confidence
• Self- monitor content understanding and recognize need for clarification
• Develop understanding of learning style
• Increase self-monitoring
• Improve organization and consistency of effortful schoolwork
• Enhance self-regulation skills
• Increase social problem-solving skills

Reading Comprehension

• Identify pertinent information within text
• Develop inferential reasoning skills
• Increase ability to draw conclusions and make predictions
• Understand character development
• Accurately identify main idea and supporting detail in narrative and exposition
• Understand theme within text and across text
• Increase critical thinking

Writing

• Increase written language output
• Maintain and develop written organization
• Increase working vocabulary
• Write effective five-paragraph essays regularly
• Write an effective research paper and use proper citations
• Increase independence in all areas of written language production
• Address remaining grammar and usage deficits

Organization and Study Skills

• Develop annotating and highlighting/underlining skills
• Construct a set of notes based on reading, listening or viewing
• Reinforce understanding and memory of information
• Plan effectively
• Prioritize information and tasks successfully
• Sort and organize notes and papers
• Use appropriate study modes and methods
• Complete homework in a timely manner and to instructor’s expectations
• Arrive at class prepared and ready to work

Sample Methods and Strategies to Achieve Objectives

Academic and Social Problem Solving

• Consistent classroom management
• Provide immediate feedback about behavior
• Follow a predictable schedule [visual schedule, rules, consequences]
• Write daily lesson objectives on the board [check off as completed]
• Use written directions to keep students focused
• Discuss expectations for classwork and homework and require expectations are met
• Individualize handouts
• Model material and written organization
• Have individual students repeat or rephrase directions back to you
• Have students explain their reasoning and describe thinking process in writing
• Set aside time at the end of each period for students to organize themselves
• Regularly evaluate student performance and re-model to remediate
• Give direct instruction on understanding the link between effort and outcome
• Provide a daily review of all topics
• Breakdown all assignments into manageable portions and scaffold realistic time management plans
• Communicate expectations to students with frequent teacher feedback
• Model the type of assignment the instructor desires

Reading Comprehension

• Highlight text and make margin notes
• Use the 5 Ws with increasing independence
• Use reciprocal teaching to elicit predictions and conclusions, clarify vocabulary, and make connections explicit
• Use graphic organizers, outlines and charts to keep track of character development, plot and exposition of theme
• Frequent review using oral and visual cues
• Gradually increase amount of independent reading both in class and at home
• Use class discussions to help connect material under study to wider frames of reference
• Develop vocabulary using both words from the text and a suitable word list

Writing

• Develop pre-writing techniques, like brainstorming
• Explore a variety of organizing strategies, including semantic webs, concept maps, and linear outlines
• Revisit paragraph structure (topic sentence, supporting details, concluding sentence)
• Use multiple drafts to increase and refine written expression
• Develop a personalized editing guide, which will include 3 or 4 targeted grammatical issues to be addressed in each assignment
• Weekly vocabulary assignments, which may profitably be associated with the text under discussion or the topic assigned for an essay
• Conference with students frequently on written work as it develops
• Provide models and demonstrations of tasks

Organization and Study Skills

• Teach, demonstrate, assign and assess highlighting and margin notes
• Use Cornell method of organizing data (or some other method agreed upon by the teaching team)
• Afford opportunities to take notes from lecture or media presentation and model what they might look like
• Provide in-class time to allow students to plan and prioritize
• Weekly organization of notebook: all written work must have complete student name and date
• Study methods that make use of visual, aural, and tactile modalities can be demonstrated
• Homework needs to be assigned regularly, must be meaningful and doable